Regulation for inspection and treatment of Honeybee related diseases
11. maj 1998
by Henrik Hansen
This regulation contains guidelines that authorized beekeepers,
supervising beekeepers and bee inspectors must follow at inspections of bee
families in relation to movement, migration beekeeping and changing of
ownership, at suspect on about brood, posting of samples and treatment, advises
and inspection in relation to AFB, EFB and stone brood. Guidelines to Varroa and
the treatment of those are pointed out in other material that can be obtained
from Danmarks JordbrugsForskning,
Inspection of bee families
brood frames in the bee family must be inspected, and also those, former used as
brood frames, must be examined. The
frames are examined for clinical symptoms (visible signs) of AFB, EFB and stone
brood. It might be necessary to shuttle of the bees to have a good examination
gloves must be used when AFB or stone brood are suspected being present. They
must be burned afterwards. Otherwise they can be cleaned by carefully use of
water and soap
gloves must not be used because they are difficult to clean.
Filling out certifications.
certification is filled out in three peaces (one set). The first is given to the
owner. The two next are immediately
sent to the bee disease inspector in the local area where the bee families are
placed at the time for the examination.
bee disease inspector stores the certifications for later use in making up. If
the bee family is moved or migration are made out of the local area the bee
disease inspector must, within eight days, forward the certification to the bee
disease inspector in the local
area, where the bees are moved to. If AFB was found previously in the families
in the yard and the treatment was not finished, the bee disease inspector must
report the movement to project group beekeeping within eight days on a special
the end of the beekeeping season, the bee disease inspector make up a final
report over the beehives and bee yards that are inspected in the local area, and
this report are sent to the project group beekeeping latest the 15. October.
Sending in samples of brood combs
sample is taken from an area of the comb, where suspicion of disease is present.
The comb sample must be around 10x10cm. The samples are put into plastic bags
and then in a carton box. A note with the beekeepers name and address and the
senders name and address is put by each sample. It is then send to project group
beekeeping. Special wrappings and containers can be ordered from project group
the Project Group have examined the samples the result is sent to the beekeeper,
the inspector and the bee diseases inspector
yards with suspicion of diseases are kept in quarantine. That means that
movements of bees, honey and used equipment are prohibited. Combs and block wax
is allowed to be sent to wax melting. The owner must be informed that the bee
yard is in quarantine when samples for suspected AFB or Stone brood are taken.
When the samples show negative or the treatment has finished, the quarantine is
American foul brood (AFB)
treatment is normal a duple treatment. The bee families can under certain
circumstances be destroyed. Under all circumstances the combs must be recycled.
The procedure is described in the following section.
The treatment starts in the morning, late afternoon or early evening to
limit the risk of robbery.
must be used rubber gloves throughout the treatment. The gloves must be burnt
when the work have finished. Clothes, veil, smoker, hive tools and other
material used through the process shall be washed and cleaned.
duple treatment the bees are brushed or shuttled into a cleaned box. This can be
a hive, a super or a special box. The box is placed on the location of the
treated hive. Leading wax stripes are placed in the treatment box. Such a stripe
consists of two wooden lists nailed together with a stripe of foundation in
between. A queen excluder is placed in front of the hive to prevent escaping the
bees when treated. The queen excluder can be placed under the bottom of the
super or magazine box. Those boxes are place on some building bricks
four days the bees are shuttled off from the leaders onto new foundation in
totally cleaned hives. A newspaper is put onto the bottom of the hive to catch
up rest of honey from the leaders. When the work at the hive have finished, the
newspaper is burned
bees must normally not bee feed while they are building on the leaders. In
periods with no honey flow, the bees can be feed with sucker after they are back
in the new hive.
less beefamilies can be killed or combined with other beefamilies with queen.
The combination takes place in that, that the bees from the queenless family are
brushed or shuttled into a box with leaders together with the queenright family.
Weak families can likewise be combined with other families
destruction takes place early in the morning or at a time where the bees are not
flying. The bees are killed by use of cleaned gasoline. The entrance is
tightened up. Then 2-3 dl cleaned gasoline is purged into the hive and the hive
Equipment and combs.
combs from families with sympthoms of clinical foul brood must be melted down.
The process is done by steam. All build out and stored combs (both brood combs
and honey combs) must likewise be melted down. If the beekeeper have more Yards,
all build out combs must be melted down, unless the material from each yard are
stored seperatly. When the combs are sendt to the vax factory they must be
packed up and marked clarly that they are from a yard with AFB.
material not in use but used in the
beeyard must be cleaned. The material is first scraped free of wax, then cleaned
by using one of the following methods.
with a gas burner.
a scrubbing brush together with hot soap water (1½ dl dishwashing
chlorine soap in 10l water) followed with clean water flushing.
with a 1%-solution of Virkon® S, which is an environment neutral
disinfectant. The spraying is done with a water atomizer and there is used as
much as needed to soak the material.